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Planetary Nebula K1-22

This Ghostly Remnant of a Dying Star is a Good Target to Test Your Eye Acuity When it is Observed With Small Instruments.

Figure 1. K1-22 planetary nebula seen close to the mountains. 
Photo by the author
Also known as ESO 378-1 and PK 283+25.1[1], this planetary nebula, nicknamed the "southern owl nebula" by some observers, is a challenging target for owners of 8-inch or similar size telescopes. April and May is a good season to observe it from the Southern Hemisphere because it is very high in the sky as soon as the sky gets dark, hidden among the stars in the long constellation Hydra (the water snake), specifically in R.A. 11h 26m 43.7s Dec -34° 22' 12".

I personally think that an 8-inch is a small telescope if we have in mind that some observers own much bigger instruments (e.g. 24, 30 or even 32-inch mirrors).

I observed this object from Potrerillos, a site you can reach driving for 1 hour to the West from Mendoza City (Argentina). It is a nearby site, so you will have some light pollution on the eastern sky if you go there. However, the sky is pretty dark at the zenith and toward the West where the high peak mountains of Los Andes are situated. I can say that the observation of this planetary requires a good dark adaptation (as with any other faint objects) and to improve as much as you can your environment to have a very dark site. I should say that to cover your head with a black blanket is a must. I also suggest to slightly shake your telescope when using averted vision taking into account that, according to researchers, rods are better motion sensors than cones, thus getting the best of your night vision to catch this elusive planetary nebula.

It was a real surprise for me to be able to glimpse this member of our Milky Way through my 8-inch telescope even at very low magnification.

This video, by ESO Observatory in Chile, shows the intriguing planetary in Hydra.

At 42x, the 1° field surrounding the planetary, which has an angular size of  3.1'x2.9', is easily recognized by identifying the pairs of stars HD 99463 & HIP 55828 (visual magnitudes 8.5 and 8.7 respectively), and the fainter one composed by the stars CD --33 07733 & TYC 7223-280-1 (visual magnitudes 9.9 and 10.5). They are labelled on Figure 2. Once there, another two pairs of stars are userful as references to find the area where this elusive planetary nebula resides. Amazingly, even without any nebular filter, a very faint nebulosity seems to jump to the view. However, the view is very challenging so nebular filters (e.g. UHC, OIII, Orion Ultrablock) are necessary to enhance the view of this interesting object of our Milky Way. The use of different eyepieces (magnification) will make possible a comprehensive visual analysis of this deep sky object and its visibility through an 8-inch telescope.

Figure 2. The planetary nebula and the nearby brightest stars in the field.
If you have a UHC filter among your accesories do not hesitate to use it to have an improved view of K1-22[2]. At low magnification and through this filter the planetary looks round, smooth, and of course very faint. The ghostly image of K1-22 is a little better detected for moments when applying averted vision. Even a slight movement of the telescope seems to enhance a little the detection of the planetary. It shows a little more contrast but it is still very faint. The Orion Ultrablock filter offers an image of the planetary not so contrasted as that of UHC. However the view improves a bit compared to that without a filter.

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images (see Figure 4 below) show two sources separated by 0".35 at the center of K 1-22; the blue northeast component is the CSPN (Central star planetary nebula) and the red southwest component is a cool companion (Ciardullo et al. 1999). The IR images show a source coincident with this close pair of stars, but cannot resolve them (paper "Spitzer 24μm Survey for Dust Disks Around Hot White Dwarfs" You-Hua Chu et al. (2011).

At 78x, K1-22 looks faint, so averted vision is necessary to improve the detection. UHC filter clearly enhances the view of the planetary. For a brief moment, a stellar feature seemed to show up inside the planetary. However, the stars "inside" or in projection on K1-22`s disk are very faint to be detected through an 8-inch telescope taking into account that they have a visual magnitude around 15.3. Sources state that at 80x an 8-inch telescope should show (under ideal conditions of course) stars up to visual magnitude around 14.4, so surely the view of that faint stars was just a false signal of my eye.  
Figure 3. The central star of this planetary nebula (CSPN K 1-22) 
is labelled on this picture.
Photo credit: ESO.

"The discoverer of this planetary nebula (Kohoutek 1971) noted that three stars appear near the center of the nebula and proposed that the brightest of these was the PNN, paper "New Planetary Nebulae". Smith & Gull (1975) confirmed that this star is very blue. Instead, Kaler & Feibelman suggested that a fainter object 4" east of Kohoutek´s candidate was the PN's true central star. Given the low stellar density in the field, the pair almost certainly form a bound system. Our derived distance of 1.3 kpc is reasonably consistent with distances based on statistical techniques (1.0 kpc, CKS ; 3.4 kpc, Zhang 1995)." (paper "A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Resolved Companions of Planetary Nebula Nuclei" Robin Ciardullo et al. 1999. On the other hand, T. Rauch et al. claim, in their paper "Classification and spectral analysis of faint central stars of highly excited planetary nebulae" (1999), that absorption features is the spectrum of the central star of PN G283.6+25.3[3] (by the way another name for this planetary nebula) suggest the presence of a cool companion with the planetary being a circular object with two lobes and without a central hole.

The view of the planetary is very faint and difficult at 106x also. A good suggestion to better detect this elusive object is to cover your head with a black carpet. Once again, the UHC filter is useful to improve the contrast of K1-22. Averted vision is always necessary to glimpse this round and smooth disk. No stars were visible at this magnification through the mentioned filter. The performance of the Orion Ultrablock filter was, as with the lower magnifications, worse than that with the UHC filter.

Figure 4. Picture taken from the paper  "Spitzer 24 µm Survey for Dust 
Disks around Hot White Dwarfs"  by  You-Hua Chu et al. showing optical 
and IR images of CSPN K1-22.

166x did not show new features or something different beyond the smooth and faint patch "hidden" among the stars in this southern constellation.

I decided to go back and make a final observation using very low magnification (i.e. 32x). Knowing in advance where this planetary lies, something seems to be visible there, very elusive. However, you can use this low power to catch it if you have, of course, a detailed star chart and a good eyepiece field chart to know the precise position of K1-22.

I used a OIII filter with this eyepiece and I got a beautiful view, with K1-22 faint but visible with direct vision. Averted vision makes possible to improve the detection with this object appearing big, smooth in brightness, and round.

H-Beta was a totally useless filter for this planetary nebula.

K1-22 is a faint planetary nebula in the autumn southern sky to study visually and photographically. If you have seen the well-known "Owl nebula" Messier 97, try to observe its southern cousin, K1-22 if you have a chance to travel to this part of the planet and enjoy the starry skies.


[1]   Perek and Kohoutek. Catalog of Galactic Planetary Nebulae.  Academia publishing house of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences,  Prague, 1967, 276 pages. Compilation of all Planetary Nebulae known in the Milky Way Galaxy in 1964. 

[2]   K is the acronym after Kohoutek.

[3] The nomenclature for the Strasbourg-ESO catalogue of planetary  nebulae.

The Coddington`s Nebula

This Member of the Nearby M81 Group Shows an Intriguing Structure 
that Amateur Astronomers can Observe Through their Telescopes

Figure 1IC 2574, in constellation Ursa Major. Photo by the author.
A summer night in the Northern Hemisphere, the sky looks good for observing deep-sky objects. However, it is important to say that the conditions were not the best at all. I consider important to mention this in case you want to compare your own observation of this faint galaxy with the report posted here. 

This article is devoted to IC 2574 (also  UGC 5666, DDO 81, and VII Zw 330), an interesting dwarf galaxy discovered by the american astronomer Edwin Foster Coddington on a photographic plate using the Crocker Photographic Telescope at Lick Observatory (University of California, USA), in 1898. This object is part of the M81 group which contains 30 members, being Messier 81, NGC 2403, and NGC 4236 the brightest ones (book "The Cambridge Photographic Atlas of Galaxies" by Michael Kônig Stephan Winnewies). M81 group is one of the nearest prominent groups in the vicinity of the Local Group. 

The IC 2574 galaxy is located at a distance D = 4.02 Mpc (1 arcsec = 19.5 pc) according to Karachentsev, Makarov & Kaisina (2013), paper "The Supergiant Shell with Triggered Star Formation in the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 2574: Neutral and Ionized Gas Kinematics" O. V. Egorov,1‹ T. A. Lozinskaya,1 A. V. Moiseev1,2 and G. V. Smirnov-Pinchukov1 (2014).

Figure 2IC 2574 and its surrounding field.
When you are ready to observe, in a site as dark as possible because we are talking about a faint object, aim your telescope to the region indicated on Figure 1, just north of the Big Dipper. This galaxy lies about 22 degrees from the well known star Polaris.

IC 2574 hosts many HI holes and also an interesting structure to be observed through big telescopes, a Supergiant Shell1 (SGS) of ∼1000 × 500 pc in deprojected size (Walter et al. 1998; Walter & Brinks 1999; Cannon et al. 2005). The SGS, as well as many holes found in IC 2574, is surrounded with HII regions likely triggered by the stellar feedback related to the star-forming event that occurred in the hole center ∼25 Myr ago (Walter & Brinks 1999; Weisz et al. 2009). The SGS is located in the northwest region of IC 2574 and created by a significant burst of star formation in its center. It is likely responsible for triggering a ring of star formation around it (Walter et al. 1998; Walter & Brinks 1999; Pasquali et al. 2008) See paper "Hunting for Young Dispersing Star Clusters in IC 2574 "Anne Pellerin, Martin M. Meyer, Daniella Calzetti, and Jason Harris (2012).

A few questions arise now, how much details can we see in this galaxy through an amateur telescope? Are the components of the supergiant shell visible?

Figure 3. Working with a DSS image I tried here to reproduce 
how the galaxy looked through the 18-inch telescope. Faint target, 
with the two "brighter" areas indicated with squares on the picture.
North is down. South is up.
This article was written based on observations I made using an 18" (45cm) f3.5 telescope. I first found this galaxy using low power (45x). The group of stars labeled with a circle on Figure 2 was useful to identify the surrounding field and to find the galaxy which was visible at this low power. With a visual magnitude of 8.2 HD 90820 is the brightest star in the 1 degree field of view. 

At 45x, IC 2574 looks like a "rather smooth nebulosity" elongated northeast-southwest with a small area appearing slightly brighter, even though is faint and round. This area is indicated with an arrow in Figure 2 and is the aforementioned supergiant shell. We are talking of a rather faint object even for an 18-inch telescope, at least under the sky conditions in central Oregon in 2018 summer, when this observation was made. It is important to say that the sky conditions were good enough for carrying out this observation but it was not an excellent sky, so maybe observers with the same kind of telescope under a darker and more clear sky might be abble to see this galaxy and its features a little better or easier.

At 61x the galaxy looks again smooth and clearly elongated, faint in brightness. Using averted vision two areas are slightly brighter than the rest (see Figure 3). However, the whole object is hard to see.

Figure 4. Credit O.V. Egorov et al. 
While the structure to the south end looks smooth in brightness and bigger than the other one, the north patch appears round and smaller. Observing carefully, some star-like structures seems to be visible in this region. Figure 4 to the left is a picture taken from the paper  "The supergiant shell with triggered star formation in Irr galaxy IC 2574: neutral and ionized gas kinematics". O.V. Egorov , T.A. Lozinskaya , A.V. Moiseev , and G.V. Smirnov-Pinchukov. This picture shows the giant HII regions on the HST/ACS F658N image of the SGS area according to the list of Stewart & Walter (2000). Bottom panel on Figure 4: location of the star clusters on the same image. The clusters identified by Pellerin et al. (2012) are shown by blue. The red circles denote the clusters from Cook et al. (2012). The four largest green circles show the star clusters identified by Yukita & Swartz (2012).

121x. This is an intersting magnification to see IC 2574. It is a faint object so averted vision is always necessary to glimpse and identify its structures. A very challenging glimpse of a small nebulosity is possible for moments when observing carefully, I´m talking about [MH94a]3 IC 2574 203 and [MH94a] IC 2574 218, a small object composed of two HII regions. The bigger structure, to the south, looks again smooth (featureless). Although faint, the smaller northern feature is a little easier to detect, appearing slightly more detached against the surrounding stars. Some of the components on that zone (appearing star-like in shape) are barely visible. Using averted vision, PMC20122 13z, the brightest component according with what can see on a DSS image, seems to be the "easiest" part to pick up visually. PMC2012 13z is a star-forming complex – an extended (∼ 450 × 320 pc) fine-filamentary HII region, located in the northern wall of the SGS. Yukita & Swartz (2012) identified the young star cluster C1 inside Region.

162x. At this power the small object composed of two HII regions is visible with averted vision (see Figure 5). It is a faint feature of the galaxy however. At this magnification the aforementioned areas of the galaxy seems to be connected by faint nebulosity, without a doubt part of the galaxy, appearing clearly elongated. Observing carefully, some components of the supergiant shell seem to jump to the view but it is not possible to see them clearly and discern and identify each one. The component of the supergiant shell, PMC2012 13z, an association4 of stars according to SIMBAD Database and the STScI Digitized Sky Survey web page is certainly visible appearing cuasi-stellar in size and with a hazy nature. The UHC filter slightly improves the view of the smaller patch of the galaxy. Even PMC2012 13z appears more nebulous.

Figure 5The supergiant shell and its main components.
Both the STScI Digitized Sky Survey web page and SIMBAD Database agree that CVL20095 UGC 5666-3, the brightest nebula in the SGS, is an HII region that looks rather non-uniform and consists of a central nebula ≃ 120 pc wide, several more compact (≃ 10 − 20 pc) clumps that surround it, and two faint external shells southeast and northwest of the region with the sizes of ≃ 20 pc and 35 pc.

Another association of stars, PMC2012 21z, is a region that has the form of a bright ‘halfshell’ whose eastern part adjoins the dense wall of the SGS, with a fainter filamentary inner part. The full size of the region is about 250 × 150 pc.

While some star-like structures seem to be visible briefly and with difficulty in this galaxy, as was mentioned above, the view is difficult and unclear, so I can not claim to have identified these last two features of the SGS visually. The only patch visible there seems to be the brightest one on Figure 5PMC2012 13z. 

IC 2574, one of the many outstanding and enigmatic galaxies that we can find in a dark sky, is a good target to put your eyes and telescope under proof and see how much you can detect under ideal observing conditions.


1_ SGS Irregular galaxies reveal giant HI supershells and holes with sizes as large as 1 – 2 kpc and lifetimes up to several hundreds Myr. Giant supershells and holes in some galaxies represent the dominant feature of the ISM. Such large structures are usually called supergiant shells (SGS), or giant supershells. Formation mechanisms of supergiant shells have been discussed extensively in recent decades

2[PMC2012] - (Pellerin+Meyer+Calzetti+, 2012)

3[MH94a] (Miller+Hodge, 1994)= (MH)as appears in SIMBAD Database

4The concept of a stellar association was originally introduced in 1949 by V. A. Ambartsumian, who later separated them into OB and T associations (Ambartsumian 1968). Morgan, Sharpless, & Osterbrock (1952) considered as a stellar association any loose group of stars within an area where bright OB stars exist and with evidence of a common origin.

A recent definition of a stellar association (Kontizas et. al. 1999) refers to it as a single, unbound concentration of early-type luminous stars, embedded in a very young star forming region.

5[CVL2009] - (Croxall+van Zee+Lee+, 2009)as appears in SIMBAD Database

N79 & N83 Complexes in LMC

A Visual Observation of Interesting Structures in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Researchers Say one of Them Could be a Rival of 30 Doradus Nebula

Figure 1. The Complexes under observation
Early March, it is dark enough now (around astronomical twilight), so the Large Magellanic Cloud looks amazing, high in the southern sky. I am ready to aim the telescope (8-inch in diameter) to the west region of this galaxy, where the arm W is situated, to find and observe in detail other interesting complexes of our nearby galaxy (i.e. LHa1201-N79 and N83). The extent of these regions are outlined in Fig. 1b in the paper "Ultraviolet and Optical Observations of OB Associations and Field Stars in the Southern Region of the Large Magellanic Cloud"Joel WM. Parker  et al. (2000). In the 1° field of view (Figure 1) the white-blue star HD 31518 (magnitude 7.2) is the brightest one. Near the center, LHa120-N79 is visible along with its companion LHa120-N83, both are small regions of nebulosity with N79 appearing more prominent and "wide". These complexes reside in a bigger structure named Shapley VII, one of the giant stellar and gaseous groupings of the LMC that has an angular dimension of 48x25 arc min (PA 90°). Shapley VII lies in an even bigger structure named SGS2 7 that has an angular dimension of 55x55 arc min. In the field of view, toward the East of these complexes, a region showing a higher concentration of very faint stars embedded in subtle nebulosity, elongated East-West, can be detected. We are talking about LHa120-N94 which includes the OB association3 LH48, which encloses, in turn, the cluster of stars NGC 1767, discovered by John Herschel. A few brighter stars are superimposed in that region. This region seems to be connected to the two main nebulosities by very subtle nebulosity.

N79 is an irregular HII region, roughly 17x14 arc min in size, that contain the OB associations LH1 (also NGC 1712) and LH2. Its coordinates are R.A. 04h 52m 00s Dec. -69° 22` 30" (J2000.0). This region has a star formation efficiency exceeding that of 30 Doradus by a factor of ∼ 2 as measured over the past 0.5 Myr. The first observation of this object was made at low magnification (42x). The animation below showing the N79 complex (Figure 2) was made using a DSS image to show what I think it could be nicknamed the "Magellanic Horsehead Nebula" because it resembles, in my opinion, the profile of a horse. That section of the complex is called LHa120-N79E and is the most prominent one (see Figure 4), appearing as a rather elongated nebulosity E-W. Using averted vision the nature (as a nebula) of this object is more obvious, appearing somewhat wider and more contrasted. Some of very subtle nebulosity seems to lie in a small area southwest of LHa120-N79E. Higher magnification and nebular filters will surely help for a more detailed description of this area.

Figure 2. Zoom in  into LHa120-N79, a complex in LMC.
Using the same magnification we move to the complex N83, situated about 15 arc min northeast of N79.  Henize (1956) identified four ionized gas regions lying in that direction (N83A, B, C, D). Lucke & Hodge (1970) detected an OB association (LH 5) spanning over 16 square minutes (3600 square pc) around N83. It contains 26 blue stars (Lucke 1974) the brightest of which is Sk-69◦30 (Sanduleak 1970), a G5 Ia with a visual magnitude of 10.18 so it is the easiest star to see of three that are visible there (see paper "HST study of the LMC compact star-forming region N83B" by M. Heydari-Malayeri et al.). Another one of the three stars looks like a small roundish nebulosity where a star is visible within it when using averted vision. Actually, that star, Sk -69 25, is the main exciting object of the mentioned nebulosity which is known as N83A, also NGC 1743 (seeFigure 6)

At the same magnification a nebular filter, like UHC, improves the view of both complexes. N79E is visible, with averted vision, as a rather elongated nebulosity where a couple of stars are glimpsed for moments. With a similar configuration of that in N83 complex, three stars can be detected in the N79 area, to the south of N79E. One of them looks actually like a star embedded in a small and round nebulosity, this object is MCELS6-L25 (see Figure 4), while the other ones are the 10.7 magnitude blue supergiant HD 268718 and the 8.5 magnitude HD 31722. The whole area seems to be engulfed by very subtle nebulosity. 

Back in N83, the component N83A looks like a small nebulosity while the entire star-forming region seems to be engulfed by some nebulosity also.

Figure 3. The object H72.97-69.39.
Picture courtesy of Bram B. Ochsendorf.
Taken from the paper "The Star Forming
Complex N79 as a Future Rival of 30 Doradus" 
written by him and his team and included here
with his permission. 
The so-called high excitation blob5 N83B (also NGC 1748) which lies about 2.5 arc minutes north-east of N83A (Figure 6), and is around 25 light years in diameter, probably represents the most recent massive starburst in the giant HII complex N83 and the OB association LH 5. Heydari-Malayeri et al. (1990) discovered a compact HII region toward N83B. This object, which they named N83B-1, turned out to be a member of the so-called high-excitation blobs (HEBs) in the Magellanic Clouds. The brightest blob is the compact HII region N83B-1.

The zone of LH8 shows, through a UHC filter, smooth nebulosity, being more obvious toward the edge of the eyepiece field and less visible (maybe absent at all) in the zone between it and the complexes under study.

Now, a view of MCELS-L25, situated close to the 11.8 magnitude star RMC 54F (according to SIMBAD Database), with higher magnification (78x), shows a very small and detached hazy patch that looks brighter toward its center. N79E looks like an elongated structure where some stars, members of the OB association LH2 (NGC 1727), are embedded and associated with the nebulosity. Averted vision improves the view of this section.

Through this eyepiece, giving 78x, only N83A appears like a roundish object, compact, and with a hazy appearance. Some of nebulosity is hard to detect in the area where the object MCELS-L55 lies. 

Applying a UHC filter, the view of N79 and, in particular, N79E is very interesting. N79E is, by far, the most prominent feature there, where faint stars member of LH2 can be glimpsed using averted vision. For moments, and of course using averted vision again, the component N79D can be barely seen, very faint and round in shape. The star cluster KMHK 187 is associated with this nebulosity according to SIMBAD Database. MCELS-L25, through this magnification and filter, looks like a small hazy spot with a star-like brightness at the center.

H72.97-69.39, a precursor to the R136 cluster in 30 Doradus? 

At the heart of the large-scale complex N79 lies an extremely luminous object which immediately draws parallels to the central cluster of 30 Dor, R136 (Nayak et al.) (See Figure 3). Bram B. Ochsendorf and his team refer to it as ‘H72.97-69.39’ (I indicate it with red letters in Figure 4). This object is more luminous than any MYSO7 or compact H II region discovered with large-scale IR surveys of the LMC and Milky Way (read more in the paper "The star-forming complex LMC-N79 as a future rival to 30 Doradus" by Bram B. Ochsendorf et al. 2017). So, if you observe this region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with your telescope, remember that a peculiar and intriguing object resides there.

Figure 4. LHa120-N79 components
At this magnification (78x) and UHC filter, N83A is clearly visible being the most conspicuous feature (in brightness) of the whole complexes. It looks, as with lower magnification, like a round and small nebulosity with its star at the center. A very challenging object, difficult to see, is MCELS-L55, appearing like a ghostly round patch using averted vision.

There is a good view of the nebulosity in N79E using the Orion Ultrablock filter. Through this filter the stars associated look a little more clear. N79D is an elusive object and it could not be clearly visible at this magnification and this filter. On the other hand, MCELS-L25 appears like a small patch of nebulosity close to the 11.8 magnitude star RMC 54F.

In the complex N83, N83A is visible with not difficulty appearing more bright and nebulous than its counterpart in N79 complex. N83A reminds me a kind of small and bright planetary nebula. MCELS L-55 is elusive and a challenging object through this filter also. It seems to show up very briefly but I can not assure it is visible. It is, without a doubt, a good test for rods in your eye.

Using higher magnification...
Figure 5. N83B detailed image
Credit: M Heydari-Malareri & NASA/ESA.

106x is a good magnification to see the whole structure in the field containing the two complexes under study. Now the association LH2 and the associated nebulosity is visible in more detail. The star CTIO85 263 (visual magnitude 12.4 according to SIMBAD Database), is the brightest one visible in that association through an 8-inch telescope (indicated with an arrow in Figure 4). N79D is barely detected using averted vision, appearing seemingly round in shape. At this power, N83A looks now like a small and compact stellar cluster.

Through a UHC filter N79E looks faint, hazy, and without stars. The nearby structure N79D can be detected using averted vision but still elusive, faint, and challenging. It appears like a round structure separate from N79E by no nebulosity.

N83A looks bright, nebulous, and rather round in shape.

Figure 5 is a composite image of the region N83B taken by HST/WFPC2. The brightest blob is the compact HII region N83B-1 and the fainter one below it (∼100 in size) is N83B-2. The small arc-nebula further south, centered on a relatively bright star, is N83B-3.

Figure 6. LHa120-N83 components
A final observation of the complexes using 166x allowed me to see even more details. The component of N79, MCELS L-25, seems to be composed by two "star-like" objects, like two slightly defocused stars. N79E is visible with more detail, showing several stars embedded in faint elongated nebulosity. N79D is again visible, round, faint, and displaying smooth brightness. Averted vision is necessary.

N83A is clearly visible showing some faint nebulosity in its outer part. The section named MCELS L-55 is hard to see, challenging and faint. A few stars seem to be glimpsed embedded in extremely faint nebulosity.

Orion Ultrablock filter and averted vision make possible to see two objects associated with nebulosity in MCELS L25. The view of N79D through this filter seems to get worse with respect to that obtained without any filter.

Another stunning formation in our satellite galaxy await to be seen by observers with telescopes during a clear night in the southern hemisphere summer.


1_  LHa-120 N- This is the full name of an entry in the Henize catalogue of LMC emission nebulae. "L" refers to the Lamont-Hussey Observatory of the University of Michigan; "Ha" means the Hydrogen-alpha emission line, the key signature line used in the survey; "120" refers to the plate number (objective prism plate) for the LMC; "N" labels the object as a nebula, as distinct from a star (label "S").

2_ SGS are the supergiant shells, the largest of complex filamentary structures in irregular and spiral galaxies, indicative of a violent ISM, with diameters approaching 1 kpc (Goudis & Meaburn 1978). SGSs are thought to be formed by the fast stellar winds and supernova explosions of multiple OB associations.

3_ OB Association: The concept of a stellar association was originally introduced in 1949 by V. A. Ambartsumian, who later separated them into OB and T associations (Ambartsumian 1968). Morgan, Sharpless, & Osterbrock (1952) considered as a stellar association any loose group of stars within an area where bright OB stars exist and with evidence of a common origin.
A recent definition of a stellar association (Kontizas et al. 1999) refers to it as a single, unbound concentration of early-type luminous stars, embedded in a very young star forming region.

4_  LH is a catalogue of OB associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud compiled by Lucke & Hodge.

5_ The compact HII regions called High-Excitation Blobs (HEB) constitute a rare class of ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds. They are characterized by high excitation, small size, high density, and large extinction compared to typical Magellanic Cloud HII regions. These objects are tightly linked to the early stages of massive star formation.

6_ MCELS means "Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey". This is a joint project of Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (Chile) and the University of Michigan using the CTIO Curtis/Schmidt Telescope.

7_ MYSOs stands for Massive (>8 Msolar ) young stellar objects.